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What is Cholesterol


What is Cholesterol?
Cholesterol is defined as a waxy alcohol, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all areas of the human body. Your body needs some cholesterol to help it work properly and is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity.
To see your ideal level of cholesterol in the blood see the cholesterol level chart below.
If you have an excess of cholesterol in your blood according to the chart, it can stick to the walls of the arteries. When cholesterol adheres to the artery walls it is called plaque. Plaque will gradually narrow your arteries and can even block them completely.
If an artery that supplies blood to the muscles in your heart becomes blocked, a heart attack can occur.
If an artery that supplies blood to your brain becomes blocked, a stroke can occur.
More that a million Americans die of heart disease each year. One of the major causes is high cholesterol levels in the blood.
The National Cholesterol Education Program suggests that total blood cholesterol level should be:
< 200 mg/dL normal blood cholesterol
200-239 mg/dL borderline-high
> 240 mg/dL high cholesterol.
Cholesterol Level Chart
This blood cholesterol chart shows what your blood cholesterol levels should be and includes low and high cholesterol level measurements
Blood Cholesterol Level ChartDesirableBorderline (high)High Risk
Total Cholesterol< 200200-240> 240
Triglycerides< 150150-500> 500
Low Density Cholesterol< 130130-160> 240
High Density Cholesterol> 5050-35< 35
Eighty-percent of the cholesterol in your body is produced by your liver, and the rest comes from foods like meats, eggs and dairy products.
The biggest influence on blood cholesterol level is fats in your diet, not the amount of cholesterol you eat from food. Narrowing it down further what really matters is the "type" of fat you eat.
Their are two types of fats, "good fat" which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, lower your risk of disease such as heart disease and atherosclerosis.
"Bad fats" being saturated and trans fats will increase the risk for certain diseases. The key to healthy eating is to substitute the bad fats for good fats avoiding the trans fats. See: Guide to Good and Bad Cholesterol
Major dietary sources containing high cholesterol include cheese, egg yolks, beef, pork, poultry, and shrimp. See: Foods to Reduce Bad Cholesterol.
Cholesterol is insoluble in blood and is transported in the body's circulatory system within lipoproteins.
There is a large range of lipoproteins within blood, generally called, from larger to smaller size: chylomicrons, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). The actual cholesterol within all the various lipoproteins is identical.
LDL = bad cholesterol and HDL = good cholesterol
How is Cholesterol Measured?
The measurement of your blood cholesterol level and other blood fats is obtained with a simple blood test by your doctor
You will be advised to fast (not eat) for 12 hours before the blood test is performed. Blood is then taken and sent to a laboratory, where the number of milligrams of cholesterol in the blood is determined. Your doctor will then provide you with the test results in accordance with their medical cholesterol level chart..
The American Heart Association recommends that adults aim for a total cholesterol level below 200 milligrams per 100 milliliters of blood serum.
Testing Cholesterol Levels in the Blood - How often Should you be Tested?
It is recommended by the American Heart Association to test cholesterol every 5 years for people aged 20 years or older.
Cholesterol level testing should be more frequent if a person: is a man over age 45 or a woman over age 50, has total cholesterol of 200 mg/dL or more, has HDL (good) cholesterol less than 40 mg/dL, or is at risk of heart disease and stroke.
Reducing your Cholesterol Chart Levels
If you have had your cholesterol level tested and according to the doctors cholesterol chart you are told you have high blood cholesterol you should look at ways of lowering your cholesterol levels including jogging, walking and any activity that concerns exercising more, eating a variety of fruits and vegetables, and cholesterol lowering medication. It has been said that Yoga may reduce the effect of cholesterol in your body.
Research has also shown that flaxseed and niacin have been proven to lower cholesterol. Red rice extract has also shown that it has cholesterol lowering properties.
Lately a new natural product on the market called red marine algae has been claimed to be an effective means of reducing the cholesterol levels in the blood.


Cholesterol: Top 5 foods to lower your numbers

Cholesterol: Top 5 foods to lower your numbers

Can a bowl of oatmeal help lower your cholesterol? How about a handful of walnuts or even a baked potato topped with some heart-healthy margarine? A few simple tweaks to your diet — like these — may be enough to lower your cholesterol to a healthy level and help you stay off medications.

1. Oatmeal, oat bran and high-fiber foods

Oatmeal contains soluble fiber, which reduces your low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the "bad" cholesterol. Soluble fiber is also found in such foods as kidney beans, apples, pears, barley and prunes.
Soluble fiber can reduce the absorption of cholesterol into your bloodstream. Five to 10 grams or more of soluble fiber a day decreases your total and LDL cholesterol. Eating 1 1/2 cups of cooked oatmeal provides 6 grams of fiber. If you add fruit, such as bananas, you'll add about 4 more grams of fiber. To mix it up a little, try steel-cut oatmeal or cold cereal made with oatmeal or oat bran.

2. Fish and omega-3 fatty acids

Eating fatty fish can be heart-healthy because of its high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, which can reduce your blood pressure and risk of developing blood clots. In people who have already had heart attacks, fish oil — or omega-3 fatty acids — reduces the risk of sudden death.
Doctors recommend eating at least two servings of fish a week. The highest levels of omega-3 fatty acids are in:
  • Mackerel
  • Lake trout
  • Herring
  • Sardines
  • Albacore tuna
  • Salmon
  • Halibut
You should bake or grill the fish to avoid adding unhealthy fats. If you don't like fish, you can also get small amounts of omega-3 fatty acids from foods like ground flaxseed or canola oil.
You can take an omega-3 or fish oil supplement to get some of the benefits, but you won't get other nutrients in fish, like selenium. If you decide to take a supplement, just remember to watch your diet and eat lean meat or vegetables in place of fish.

3. Walnuts, almonds and other nuts

Walnuts, almonds and other nuts can reduce blood cholesterol. Rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, walnuts also help keep blood vessels healthy.
According to the Food and Drug Administration, eating about a handful (1.5 ounces, or 42.5 grams) a day of most nuts, such as almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pecans, some pine nuts, pistachio nuts and walnuts, may reduce your risk of heart disease. Just make sure the nuts you eat aren't salted or coated with sugar.
All nuts are high in calories, so a handful will do. To avoid eating too many nuts and gaining weight, replace foods high in saturated fat with nuts. For example, instead of using cheese, meat or croutons in your salad, add a handful of walnuts or almonds.

How to Learn Human Physiology


“How to Learn Human Physiology Visually in 24 Hours”
-    Dr. Wayne Huang
Human Physiology could be one of the core courses in your academic career. How can you learn it fast and learn it well?
Simple answer: “Rapid Learning”.
Rapid Learning? Yes, it could be your learning edge to ace this course.
You can get started today at Human Physiology
Rapid Learning = Rich Media + Smart Teaching
Rich Media: Human Physiology is a visual science. Naturally, it is easier to learn it visually with rich media.
Smart Teaching: Human Physiology is all about understanding the functions of human organs. Relate them to problem solving (i.e. your exam questions). Smart teaching provides the learning of the core concepts and their interconnections, and applies such the understanding to answer questions and solve problems.
So far so good, but how about the 24 hours?
Learn it the rich-media way. Each intensive hour, you will study the visual tutorial of one chapter for 30 minutes, then you will practice on the interactive problem drill for another 20 minutes, and finally you will super-review the chapter via the pre-made chapter cheat sheet.
With the latest web and video technologies, online learning is now a snap, anytime and anyplaceHuman Physiology. It is much more enjoyable and rewarding than crawling through your lengthy textbooks.
Here is the solution … the rapid learning course “Teach Yourself Human Physiology Visually in 24 Hours”.

IUSOM Faculty Opening in Human Physiology

International University School of Medicine (IUSOM) from its all Worldwide Campuses 
is Providing Medical Education and Training to All without International Borders 
regardless of race, national origin, religion, sex, or age, whoever desires to devote 
the extensive time and effort necessary to practice medicine. IUSOM provides a 
comprehensive 
Basic Science and Clinical Medicine Education enabling students to 
complete a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree. IUSOM Main Campus and all its 
Branch Campuses situated in the different parts of the world also offer 
Pre-Medical 
(PreMed) program.

The Main Campus of International University School of Medicine (IUSOM) located in 
Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean (Formerly Netherlands Antilles) has a faculty position 
open for teaching Human Physiology for the Basic Sciences of Doctor of Medicine 
(M.D.) Degree Program. IUSOM is also accepting applications to fill-in similar faculty 
positions vacant at its Worldwide Branch Campuses situated in Barranquilla 
(Colombia), México City (México), and Sialkot (Pakistan).

Applicants should have preferably an M.D. and/or a Ph.D. Degree, demonstrable 
teaching and clinical experience, and good oral and written English language skills. 
Applicants having lower than Ph.D. Level Education with Outstanding Achievements 
and Experiences in their field of expertise shall also be given full considerations in 
filling these academic vacancies. The position shall be filled at the Assistant, 
Associate or Full Professor level depending upon qualifications and experience.

At IUSOM, positions are offered on a one to three year contract basis, renewable.

Faculty is responsible for course and curriculum development and members are 
placed on student admission committees, promotions committees and other faculty 
and administrative committees.

Applicants from U.S.A, Canada, México, South America, EU, and Asia are welcome 
to apply.
Position requirements

  • Doctoral degree in Human Physiology (e.g.M.D., Ph.D., or equivalent)
  • Substantial teaching experience at a U.S., Canadian, European, Asian or Caribbean Medical School
  • Strong record of excellence and commitment to teaching
  • Evident interest in innovative approaches to teaching
  • Candidates must be willing to relocate to the locality of IUSOM Campus

Compensation
  • Position and salary will be related to the teaching experience
  • Salaries comparable to International prevailing rates
  • Payable direct in US dollars (US $)
  • Up to 90% discount for basic tuition fee at IUSOM, to the Children (Maximum 2) of Faculty staff, who are admitted for pursuing a PreMed and/or M.D. degree program at IUSOM

ApplyingInterested candidates can send an application letter and a complete C.V. together 
with name, mailing address, telephone number, fax number, and E.-Maill address of 
at least 3 professional references,  to IUSOM Headquarters and Main Campus, at 
the following address:

IUSOM Headquarters and Main Campus
International University School of Medicine
Attention: Vice-President Academic
Kaya Mòfi 1
P.O. Box 59
Kralendijk
Bonaire
Dutch Caribbean (Formerly Netherlands Antilles)
Tel.: + 599-717-6792
Fax: + 599-717-8385
E.-Mail: 
admin@InternationalUniversity-SchoolOfMedicine.org
All applications will be treated with strictest confidentiality

Human Physiology (12th Edition)



Book Description:
Clear explanations and a solid learning framework have been market tested and refined. Fox helps students master the fundamentals by providing appropriate anatomical detail.
Human Physiology, Twelfth Edition, is intended for the one-semester Human Physiology course often taken by allied health and biology students. The beginning chapters introduce basic chemical and biological concepts to provide students with the framework they need to comprehend physiological principles. The chapters that follow promote conceptual understanding rather than rote memorization of facts. Health applications are included throughout the book to heighten interest, deepen understanding of physiological concepts, and help students relate the material to their individual career goals. Every effort has been made to help students integrate related concepts and understand the relationships between anatomical structures and their functions.
Book Details:
 US Edition (Reference Only)International Edition (Actual Book)
Condition:Brand NewSame
Edition:12thSame
Author:Stuart Ira FoxSame
Publisher:McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/MathMcGraw-Hill Higher Education
ISBN-10:00773500650071221905
ISBN-13:97800773500629780071221900
Format:HardcopyPaperback
 Cover Design:Image 1Image 2
 Book Content:US EditionSame
Language:EnglishSame
Color Printed:YesSame
Paper Quality:HighSame
Addons:n/an/a

What is an International Edition? Why buy International Edition?
Most International edition textbooks have the same page-to-page and word-to-word content as US Edition. The price of the International edition textbook is much cheaper than that of US edition. An international edition textbook has soft cover format, different cover design and ISBN. On very rare occasion, some international textbooks may come with different exercises at the end of chapters. International edition textbooks normally have restricted sales disclaimer like “Not for Sales in USA and Canada” printed on the cover of the book even that the books have the same content as US edition or legal to use in North America. United States Supreme Court recently ruled on this issue that conserve your right. Click here to read more on the article reported by New York Times on why thousands of students are now buying International edition textbooks!
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renal physiology

Introduction
In order to analyze the work and development of the wearable artificial kidney and bio-artificial kidney, it is important to understand the physiology that the organ replacement therapies intend to replace. This section describes the important aspects of the anatomy, functions, and failure of the kidney that will help you in analyzing the present and future research endeavors presented in this site.

Anatomy
The kidneys are a pair of fist sized organs located in the small of the back behind the peritoneum. Each kidney weighs about 115g-170g and have the following approximate dimensions: 11 cm in length, 6 cm in width, and 3 cm thick - about the size of a deodorant stick.[3] 
 
 

Source: Fox S.I., Human Physiology 6th edition, pg. 528
Each kidney is perfused at a rate of 600 ml/min by way of the renal artery [3]. Each renal artery branches into interlobar arteries, arcuate arteries, interlobular arteries, and then into 1.2 million afferent arterioles that each feed each nephron, the functional unit of the kidney. After blood has been filtered through the glomerulus and transported through the nephron's vasculature it passes through the interlobular, arcuate, and interlobar that merge into the renal vein and back in to systemic circulation. [2]
The kidney is composed of two regions, the renal cortex and medulla. The cortex is where the renal corpuscles reside, proximal tubules, and distal tubules are found. The medulla is home to the loop of Henle, vasa recta, and collecting tubules. Urine from the various collecting ducts drains into the renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder. 
 
Major functions
The kidneys are often thought of as the body's filters, removing toxins and metabolic waste products from the body. The kidneys certainly perform this task; however they have a few more responsibilities, without which we would not be able to survive.
 

Ultrafiltration
Of the renal blood flow, 125 ml/min is filtered by glomerulus. In one day, the kidney filters approximately 180 liters of blood and produces 1.5 liters of urine. Thus, it is evident that the kidneys possess extraordinary mechanisms to reabsorb water while removing metabolic waste by-products and toxins. [3] Kidney function is measured by the glomerular filtration rate (ml/min) which is defined as the filtration of a solute that is not reabsorbed nor secreted. The clearance (mass removal of a solute/concentration of solute) of a solute can also be used to quantify renal function. 

Source: Fox S.I., Human Physiology, 6th edition, pg. 544.


Endocrine Function
The kidneys secrete the following hormones to initiate processes that occur in other parts of the body: 
1. Erythropoietin to stimulate erythrocyte production in bone marrow. 
2. The active form of Vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, to aid in gut absorption of calcium for bone deposition. 
3. Renin to help regulate blood volume and potassium balance (described in Volume Regulation). 
 

Osmolarity Regulation
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) is synthesized in the hypothalamus and released in the posterior pituitary in response to an increase in osmolarity as sensed by osmoreceptors in the anterior hypothalamus. The presence of ADH increases the water permeability of the collecting tubule permitting water reabsorption and a shift towards normal plasma osmolarity. In the process, concentrated urine is formed. In the absence of ADH, the water permeability of the collecting tubules is low, more water is excreted in diluted urine, and blood osmolarity returns to normal. 
 

Volume Regulation
In addition to the kidney being anatomically designed to create concentrated urine in order to conserve fluid volume, the kidney is also designed to regulate extracellular fluid volume through the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone (RAA) pathway and Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF). 
The kidneys initiate the RAA pathway by secreting renin within the lumen of the afferent arteriole. Renin initiates the cascade of reactions that releases aldosterone from adrenal cortex; thereby stimulating the reabsorption of Na+ in the collecting tubule lumen. Since sodium is primarily an extracellular solute, a change in its concentration will lead to a change in extracellular volume (plasma and interstitial volume). 
Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF) is secreted by cells in the atria of the heart to inhibit Na+ reabsorption in the kidneys when there is an excess of Na+ and fluid in plasma. It also inhibits secretion of aldosterone, which also inhibits Na+ reabsorption. 
 

Acid-Base Regulation
Everyday metabolism of proteins and phospholipids generates sulfuric and phosphoric acids, respectively. In order to maintain a normal physiologic pH, the body maintains a buffer reserve of bicarbonate ions. The kidneys regenerate this buffer reserve and excrete the acidic metabolic waste products. 
 
 

Source: Fox S.I., Human Physiology, 6th edition, pg. 554.

Renal Failure
Kidney failure can be grouped into two categories: Acute and Chronic.
 

Acute Renal Failure
There are many mechanisms for this temporary condition when there is sudden loss of renal function in response to trauma, hemorrhage, adverse reactions to anesthesia, bacteria, and autoimmune diseases (glomerulonephritis). There is over a 50% mortality rate associated with acute renal failure. 
 

Chronic Renal Disease & End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
Chronic renal disease is defined as the irreversible degeneration of kidney function. People who are diagnosed with chronic renal disease (about 1 in 5,000 to 10,000) have a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below 25 ml/min.[3] ESRD is diagnosed when GFR is less than 5 ml/min. Dialysis treatment or kidney transplantation is then necessary for survival. Diabetes and hypertension are the two major causes of chronic renal disease, which results in the slow or fast deterioration of nephron functionality. The degeneration of the nephrons is accelerated by the fact that the shrinking population of functional units must assume the filtering capacity of the whole kidney. The other important renal functions (as discussed above) are also compromised. Thus, a person with chronic renal disease or ESRD can be anemic and hypocalcemic and must receive erythropioetin and active vitamin D supplements. 
 

Renal Physiology References
1. Vander A. M.D., Sherman J. Ph.D, Luciano D, Ph.D. Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function. 6th edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1994. 
2. Fox, S.I., Human Physiology, 6th edition, WCB McGraw-Hill, 1999. 
3. Lysaght, M.J. Ph.D, Biology 108 Lecture Notes, January 30, 2001.

Anatomy

Anatomy (from the Greek ἀνατομία anatomia, from ἀνατέμνειν ana: separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open) is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytotomy). In some of its facets anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology,[1] through common roots in evolution.
Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy (or macroscopic anatomy) and microscopic anatomy.[1] Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision with the naked eye.[1] Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues),[1] and cytology (the study of cells).
The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century including X-ray, ultrasound, and MRI imaging.
Anatomy should not be confused with anatomical pathology (also called morbid anatomy or histopathology), which is the study of the gross and microscopic appearances of diseased organs.
Contents [hide]
1 Superficial anatomy
2 Human anatomy
3 Other branches
4 See also
5 Notes
6 References
7 External links
[edit]Superficial anatomy

Superficial anatomy or surface anatomy is important in anatomy being the study of anatomical landmarks that can be readily seen from the contours or the surface of the body.[1] With knowledge of superficial anatomy, physicians or veterinary surgeons gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures. Superficial is a directional term that indicates one structure is located more externally than another, or closer to the surface of the body.
[edit]Human anatomy

Main article: Human anatomy


Para-sagittal MRI scan of the head


An X-ray of a human chest.


Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Gray's Anatomy.
Human anatomy, including gross human anatomy and histology, is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body.[1]
Generally, students of certain biological sciences, paramedics, prosthetists and orthotists, physiotherapists, occupational therapy, nurses, and medical students learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical students generally also learn gross anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies).
Human anatomy, physiology and biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically;[1] that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems. The major anatomy textbook, Gray's Anatomy, has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format,[2][3] in line with modern teaching methods. A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required by all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology.
Academic human anatomists are usually employed by universities, medical schools or teaching hospitals. They are often involved in teaching anatomy, and research into certain systems, organs, tissues or cells.
[edit]Other branches

Comparative anatomy relates to the comparison of anatomical structures (both gross and microscopic) in different animals.[1]
Anthropological anatomy or physical anthropology relates to the comparison of the anatomy of different races of humans.
Artistic anatomy relates to anatomic studies for artistic reasons.

Organ (anatomy)

In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, "instrument, tool", from Greek ὄργανον, organon, "organ, instrument, tool"[1]) is a collection of tissues joined in structural unit to serve a common function. [2]
Usually there is a main tissue (parenchyma) and sporadic tissues (stroma). The main tissue is the one that is unique for the specific organ. For example, main tissue in the heart is the myocardium, while sporadic are the nerves, blood, connective etc.. Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems. Organs exist in all higher biological organisms, in particular they are not restricted to animals, but can also be identified in plants. An example of this is the bladder. In single-cell organisms like bacteria, the functional analogues of organs are called organelles.
A hollow organ is a visceral organ that is a hollow tube or pouch (as the stomach or intestine) or that includes a cavity (as of the heart or urinary bladder).[3]
Contents [hide]
1 Organ systems
2 Plants
3 Animals
3.1 List of mammalian organ systems
4 See also
5 References
6 External links
[edit]Organ systems

Main article: Biological system
Two or more organs working together in the execution of a specific body function form an Organ System (Biological System or Body System). The functions of organ systems often share significant overlap. For instance, the nervous and endocrine system both operate via a shared organ, the hypothalamus. For this reason, the two systems are combined and studied as the neuroendocrine system. The same is true for the musculoskeletal system, which involves the relationship between the muscular and skeletal systems.
[edit]Plants



The flower is the angiosperm's reproductive organ. This Hibiscus flower is hermaphroditic, and it contains stamen and pistils.


Strobilus of Equisetum telmateia.
Organs of plants can be divided into vegetative and reproductive. Vegetative plant organs are root, stem, and leaf. The reproductive organs are variable. In angiosperms, they are represented with the flower, seed and fruit. In conifers, the organ that bears the reproductive structures is called a cone. In other divisions of plants, the reproductive organs are called strobili (in Lycopodiophyta) or simply gametophores (in mosses).
The vegetative organs are essential for maintaining the life of a plant. There are 11 organ systems (they perform the vital functions, such as photosynthesis), while the reproductive organs are essential in reproduction. However, if there is asexual vegetative reproduction, the vegetative organs are those that create the new generation of plants (see clonal colony).
The two main organ systems in vascular plants are the root system and the shoot system.
[edit]Animals

The organ level of organisation in animals can be first detected in flatworms and the more advanced phyla. The less-advanced taxons (like Placozoa, Porifera and Radiata) do not show consolidation of their tissues into organs.
[edit]List of mammalian organ systems
There are eleven major organ systems found in mammals.
Mammals such as humans have a variety of organ systems. These specific systems are also widely studied in human anatomy.
Circulatory system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood and blood vessels.
Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, colon, rectum and anus.
Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary or pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids and adrenals, i.e., adrenal glands.
Excretory system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.
Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails.
Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream, the lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it including the Immune system: defending against disease-causing agents with leukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus and spleen.
Muscular system: movement with muscles.
Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and nerves.
Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis.
Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and diaphragm.
Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons.
[edit]

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